Friday, May 22, 2020

Reading Notes on Robert Frost’s Poem “Nothing Gold Can Stay”

Robert Frost wrote a number of long narrative poems like â€Å"The Death of the Hired Man,† and most of his best-known poems are medium-length, like his sonnets â€Å"Mowing† and â€Å"Acquainted with the Night,† or his two most famous poems, both written in four stanzas, â€Å"The Road Not Taken† and â€Å"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.† But some of his most beloved poems are famously brief lyrics—like â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay,† which is condensed into only eight lines of three beats each (iambic trimeter), four little rhyming couplets containing the whole cycle of life, an entire philosophy. Double Entendreâ€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay† achieves its perfect brevity by making every word count, with a richness of meanings. At first, you think it’s a simple poem about the natural life cycle of a tree: â€Å"Nature’s first green is gold,Her hardest hue to hold.† But the very mention of â€Å"gold† expands beyond the forest to human commerce, to the symbolism of wealth and the philosophy of value. Then the second couplet seems to return to a more conventional poetic statement about the transience of life and beauty: â€Å"Her early leaf’s a flower;But only so an hour.† But immediately after that, we realize that Frost is playing with the multiple meanings of these simple, mostly single syllable words—else why would he repeat â€Å"leaf† like he’s ringing a bell? â€Å"Leaf† echoes with its many meanings—leaves of paper, leafing through a book, the color leaf green, leafing out as an action, as budding forth, time passing as the pages of the calendar turn... â€Å"Then leaf subsides to leaf.† From Naturalist to PhilosopherAs the Friends of Robert Frost at the Robert Frost Stone House Museum in Vermont point out, the description of colors in the first lines of this poem is a literal depiction of the spring budding of willow and maple trees, whose leaf buds appear very briefly as golden-colored before they mature to the green of actual leaves. Yet in the sixth line, Frost makes it explicit that his poem carries the double meaning of allegory: â€Å"So Eden sank to grief,So dawn goes down to day.† He is retelling the history of the world here, how the first sparkle of any new life, the first blush of the birth of mankind, the first golden light of any new day always fades, subsidies, sinks, goes down. â€Å"Nothing gold can stay.† Frost has been describing spring, but by speaking of Eden he brings fall, and the fall of man, to mind without even using the word. That’s why we chose to include this poem in our seasonal collection of poems for autumn rather than spring.

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Student Loan Debt An Important Role For College Students

Student Loan Debt Financial support has played an important role for college students, especially for university students, whose family could not support their education after they have graduated from high school. Due to this situation, students have to go through a lot of problems with their tuition fees to be able to continue with their education. They always need a large amount of money besides paying for the tuition but also for living, and students have to go through a lot of problems with their tuition fees in order to be able to finish their career on time and earn a better living in the future. Some students will choose to go to work part time while at school, so they can pay for their fees and their own expense, such as gas, foods, and clothing. On the other hand, most of students will choose to take out loans from somewhere else, such as the bank or federal loans. This way, students who choose to take out a loan could focus on their education without worrying about how to pay for their fees. It is very important for students to acknowledges and be aware of the different types of student loans, and all the requirements before students decide to obtain a loan. Because of the raise in tuition leads to the existence of the student loan debt is a burden that is a financial impact on lifestyle changes, such as postpone couples to get married, to have children, to buy a house and to save for retirement. The rate of tuition is vastly different now than it was inShow MoreRelatedStudent Loan Debt : An Important Role For College Students2175 Words   |  9 PagesStudent Loan Debt Financial support has played an important role for college students, especially for university students, whose family could not support their education after they have graduated from high school. 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As the result ofRead MoreIncome Share Agreements ( Isa )1169 Words   |  5 PagesWith student loan debt becoming increasingly worse year after year, new and potentially better avenues for students to finance a college education are emerging onto the market. In particular, income-share agreements (ISA) have appeared on the scene for a few years now, but not have attempted to modernize the way students pay for college. The big take away from ISA’s is the shift of financial risk from the student to the investor, unlike the traditional gover nment or private loans. A student promisesRead MoreShould Student Debt Go Beyond?1269 Words   |  6 Pagesbecoming more competitive and most require higher education. College has become necessary and so consequently, it has become more expensive. While loans have made it possible for nearly anyone to attend college, because they are given too easily, the costs of college has increased even more. 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But with an overwhelming 1.3 million students graduating with an average student loan debt of $29,000 each and with youth unemployment elevated, the question of whether or not college tuition is worth the money arises (The Institute for College Access Success, 2013). Higher education faces intimidating challenges: continually rising costs, access and completion problems, constant changing of technologyRead MoreWhat Are The Effects Of High College Tuition Costs On The1466 Words   |  6 PagesWhat are the effects of high college tuition costs on the economy? The fundamental aim of obtaining a higher education in this country has been to prepare and educate young Americans to accept and consider productive and proactive roles in the workforce, to strengthen our communities and nation as a whole, to contribute to our domestic and international economic competitiveness and to enrich our lives to the very fullest. As part of the perception of the American dream of â€Å"opportunity for allRead MoreShould Colleges Be Free For Every Students?922 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Help, Help† Colleges should be free for every students. There are many obstacles that students face during each semester. Some of those obstacles are the work for classes, time management, and mostly stress. However, there are enormous numbers of people who are suffering from students loans after graduation or dropping out from colleges. Some cannot afford to repay for loans because their income is low and there are also many other bills to pay for such as rent, heat, and water. In other cases,Read MoreStudent Lo Samaritan Or Satan?1545 Words   |  7 Pages3rd Draft Student Loan: Samaritan or Satan? â€Å"Die Luft der Freiheit weht† is Stanford’s motto, which means â€Å"The wind of freedom blows.† However, selective universities are not â€Å"free† like Stanford University’s motto and even less â€Å"free† when students graduate. College students pay a huge amount of tuition every year, and yet not every college graduate can find a satisfying job. Many college students choose to take out student loans. Student loans give many students chances to go to college indeed, butRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid For The Poor Or Middle Class? Essay1698 Words   |  7 Pagesmillion college students and 71% end up in student loan debt;and that number has been increasing since 2012 and has combined to a total of 1.3 million dollars in student loan debt.Student loan debt has become a recurring issue over the years with students,presidential candidates,governments fighting for ways or not fighting for ways to implement new programs to make c ollege cheaper but it has not been efficient in making college affordable for the poor or middle class. This is such an important topic

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Every Child Matters Act and the No Child Left Behind Act Free Essays

Jamondria Robinson 3rd hour Flanders A barrier for ensuring that all children in our community receive a high quality education would be the Every Child Matters Act and the No Child Left Behind Act. Ed. Gov states, â€Å"President Bush made a commitment to ensure that all children receive a high quality education so that no child is left behind. We will write a custom essay sample on Every Child Matters Act and the No Child Left Behind Act or any similar topic only for you Order Now In just one year after the president first took office, the No Child Lefty behind Act (NCLB) passed overwhelmingly. No Child Left Behind has led to higher standards and greater accountability throughout the nation’s school systems. No Child Left Behind provides the schools with more funding, gives states and school districts more control and more flexibility to use resources where they are needed most, holds schools and school districts accountable for results, and may provide your child with free tutoring and extra help with school work. When it comes to improving education in our state I believe our priority is to improve teaching, make better finical investments in our education systems, and coming up with better way to get students more involved and excited to learn. I believe we need to look at how much we’ve already spent and what were using the money for and evaluate what we are receiving in return. Opening college doors to more high school students who don’t have the funds to pay for it themselves is also another way in improving education in our state, allowing more students to have the opportunity to receive a decent education. Offering more and specific work related classes that interest the student and offering high more challenging courses for the students as well. But its not just about what the state and community can do, but its also up to the parents. Parents and Guardians play a big part in helping improve our education systems. The role of parent and parental involvement in improving education in our state is being involved. Regardless of the family income or background students with involved parents are more likely to earn higher grades and test scores attend school regular basis. Students with involved parents tend to have better social skills, improved behavior, and graduate on time and attend college. Children who have parents who aren’t there to push and motivate them don’t make it quit far. Parental support is always needed and a big part of parental involvement. If your parent doesn’t care about your education or is involved regarding you education you’re going to feel as if it’s not so important. Parents can become more involved by talking to their child and the child’s teachers, making sure they know who is giving their child the education and to be sure the child is working to their best of their ability. Physical environment affect school climate and student achievement by depending on what goes on inside or outside of school of the school will the feelings expressed by students, teachers, staff and parents about school. If the child is placed into a negative environment outside of school there’s a big guarantee that it will be brought back into school by that child. There’s also a chance that other students may pick up vibes from another student rather its negative or positive. When the child is placed into a good positive environment outside of school more than likely he or she will feel more better about themselves and bring that attitude back into the school as well. A well disciplined environment, learning environment, social environment, and school-community relations all affect the schools climate and the achievements of the students who attend. When students have to travel outside their neighborhood to attend a great school their family looses time, money, and energy. To put your child in a school that is better than their neighborhood schools probably cost more and is a bit embarrassing to the community or area you reside in. You’re using more gas to provide your child transportation to attend this school. It also takes up more time to take and pick your child up from a school that’s more than 20 minutes away from where you live. Now with a lot of students coming from poorly educated schools to attend the good schools they are making the â€Å"good† public schools in that particular area look bad. Most Africa-American communities don’t care about attending school or getting a good education. Everyone wants to make it out on their own but it seems as if the younger generations don’t want to make the first step in receiving a good education. They don’t take getting a education as serious as they should. But not all African Americans in a community feel that way. I believe the African-American communities stand beside other communities in America with the problems in the system. I believe the African Americans stand beside other communities because most of them don’t care. From the looks of things I believe most African-Americans have the wrong mentality about school and life. How to cite Every Child Matters Act and the No Child Left Behind Act, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Thrasymachus’ Views on Justice free essay sample

The position Thrasymachus takes on the definition of justice, as well as its importance in society, is one far differing from the opinions of the other interlocutors in the first book of Plato’s Republic. Embracing his role as a Sophist in Athenian society, Thrasymachus sets out to aggressively dispute Socrates’ opinion that justice is a beneficial and valuable aspect of life and the ideal society. Throughout the course of the dialogue, Thrasymachus formulates three major assertions regarding justice. These claims include his opinion that â€Å"justice is nothing other than the advantage of the stronger,† â€Å"it is just to obey the rulers,† and â€Å"justice is really the good of another [†¦] and harmful to the one who obeys and serves. † Socrates continuously challenges these claims using what is now known as the â€Å"Socratic method† of questioning, while Thrasymachus works to defend his views. This paper seeks to argue the implausibility of Thrasymachus’ views through an analysis of his main claims regarding justice, as well as his view that injustice brings greater happiness. We will write a custom essay sample on Thrasymachus’ Views on Justice or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In Book I of Republic, Socrates attempts to define justice with the help of his friends and acquaintances. After a number of suggestions prove false or insufficient, Thrasymachus tries his hand to define the term, convinced that his definition rings true. Thrasymachus begins in stating, â€Å"justice is nothing other than the advantage of the stronger,1† and after prodding, explains what he means by this. Thrasymachus believes that the stronger rule society, therefore, creating laws and defining to the many what should be considered just. He pertains, however, that the stronger create said laws for their own benefit and therefore in acting justly, the ruled are performing for the rulers benefit and not their own. This argument is not feasible for a variety of reasons. One of the key characteristics of justice is fairness, which can also be defined as being reasonable or impartial. 5 Impartiality means that you do not favour one side over another6, and therefore implies that if one were to act justly and therefore impartially, they would not act in a way to benefit only a select few. Furthermore, justice in its true form cannot be used solely for the advantage of the stronger without the masses acknowledging the injustices being imposed upon them, as Thrasymachus suggests is the case. For justice is one of the many characteristics of morality, which is considered to be intrinsic based on an inner conviction. 7 Therefore, if the many were acting against said inner conviction wholly for the benefit of the stronger, would they not experience a natural feeling of injustice? This argument alike can be used to refute another of Thrasymachus’ primary claims that â€Å"justice is really the good of another [†¦] and harmful to the one who obeys and serves. †3 In addition to his definition, Thrasymachus argues the value of justice as a human or societal characteristic, claiming that injustice is far more beneficial to the individual. Thrasymachus asserts that tyranny: makes the doer of injustice happiest and the sufferers of it, who are unwilling to do injustice, most wretched. †¦] injustice, if it is on a large enough scale, is stronger, freer, and more masterly than justice. 5 To decide whether an unjust man finds more happiness than a just man does, one must understand the true meaning of the word. The dictionary defines happiness as â€Å"characterized by pleasure, contentment, or joy. †8 Thrasymachus typifies the unjust man as someone who is constantly seeking self-fulfillment, pleasing their desires no matter what the cost to others. It is in their nature to never be satisfied with what they have, and therefore it is unlikely that the unjust man could ever experience true contentment. In contrast, the just man is content upholding laws and acting for the greater good and is therefore capable of experiencing a greater happiness than one who partakes in injustices. The dictionary goes on to state that happiness can also be defined as â€Å"feeling satisfied that something is right or has been done right. 8 Thus, an unjust man could never truly be happy, as they are aware of the injustices they have committed unto others in order to benefit themselves. In addition, if one is to look to the cardinal virtues, not only is justice itself included, temperance is as well. Temperance, meaning â€Å"restraint in the face of temptation or desire†9 is not a characteristic of an unjust man. In fact, Thrasymachus argues that one should always seek to fulfill their own desires exercising injustice as a way to do so. Virtue is said to be a measure of one’s worth, therefore, in turning their back on it, an unjust man could never be as self fulfilled and happy as a virtuous one. The first book of Republic illustrates a diverse range of views in reference to the definition of justice. None, however, evokes such controversy and analysis as Thrasymachus’ dialogue. His point of view calls to the forefront a number of important questions regarding the issue, and is an essential piece to Plato’s puzzle of defining justice.

Friday, March 20, 2020

The Forgotten West

The Forgotten West ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !Take-Home Midterm Essay! ! ! !Courtney Maness! ! ! !History 365Professor BrunoFebruary 20, 2014The American West has long held the imaginations and fascinations of Americans. Asksomeone what they think when they hear the term "the West", and they would likely saycowboys and Indians, ranches, the open prairie, and covered wagons. Sure these things are partof Western history and culture, but have you ever thought about it on a deeper level? Who werethe first groups of people to live in what is now America? Were Americans in the right to justmove west of the Mississippi River without any thought as to the fact that there might already bepeople settled on the land? Is the way we remember events in the history of the west correct, ordo we have a flawed or even biased view of what really happened? We never give much thoughtto these questions, we simply take the common view of events such as the battle at the Alamo,and the Indian wars, and accept that as being the final say in what happened. It is my intention topeel back the layers of three major pieces of the history of the American West, Cahokia, nowforgotten but at one time the largest city in ancient North America, and its fall from greatness;the battle at the Alamo and why it is so romanticized; and the Dakota Wars, in which Dakotatribes challenged Americans' idea of manifest destiny. How are some of these events nevermentioned in modern history lessons, while some have become larger than life?Beginning with some of the earliest days of civilization within the Mississippi Riverregion, we first arrive upon the...Monk's Mound a Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

5 Tips for Writing a Stellar Vanderbilt Supplement Essay

5 Tips for Writing a Stellar Vanderbilt Supplement Essay SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Vanderbilt is one of the United States’ highest-ranking colleges. With an acceptance rate of just 10 percent, it’s ranked as extremely competitive. It’s no surprise- Vanderbilt is known for having a wealth of appealing programs, including its school of medicine, the Peabody College of Education and Human Development, and Blair School of Music. Because it’s extremely competitive, you’ll need to set yourself apart as a prospective student. That doesn’t mean just your grades and impressive extracurriculars; it also means writing a killer essay to go along with your application. In this guide, we’ll tell you everything you need to know about Vanderbilt’s supplemental essay, including some ideal topics, some pitfalls to avoid, and even some analysis of past Vanderbilt essays that have worked. The Vanderbilt Supplement Basics Vanderbilt’s application is fairly straightforward. They accept multiple application formats, including both the Common and Coalition Applications, as well as Questbridge. What application you use is up to you. There are many reasons to choose one or the other, but regardless of which application you pick, you’ll still be answering just one supplemental essay prompt from Vanderbilt. Choose whichever application works best for you. In addition to the essays required for your Common, Coalition, or Questbridge Application, Vanderbilt requires one supplemental essay. There’s only one prompt with a 400-word limit, so you won’t have to choose between prompts. However, having just one prompt means that you’ll need to put a lot of attention into making your essay as good as it can be. You only have one chance to prove yourself in your essay, so make it count! A little latte art never hurts. What Is the Vanderbilt Supplement Essay Prompt? Vanderbilt has just one prompt for their supplemental essay, which must be answered in 400 words or less. Please briefly elaborate on one of your extracurricular activities or work experiences. The question is straightforward- Vanderbilt is asking you to discuss one of your extracurriculars in depth. This doesn’t just demonstrate to the admissions office that you’re dedicated to your interest, but also that you have passions outside of school. Vanderbilt wants to know that you’ll bring something besides academics to campus, and this is the space to tell them about it. Keep in mind that Vanderbilt isn’t looking for a list of activities or just a short discussion of one of your extracurriculars. They specifically ask for one, but you have 400 words to cover- which means you should spend some time unpacking not just the activity itself, but why you do it and why it matters to you. Be thoughtful; really think about your activities and why you do them beyond that they look good on your college application. Don’t just pick the extracurricular activity that you think Vanderbilt would want to hear about. If you’re a champion Mathlete but you really feel fulfilled when you’re making short films with your friends over the weekend, you should be writing about the short films. If your short film was played at a local film festival but you find more meaning in the time you spend knitting, write about knitting! It’s not about being impressive here. Plenty of other applicants will be discussing their charity work or science team victories. Use this space to discuss yourself, and why the things you do matter to you. If the most impressive thing in your repertoire and the thing that’s most personally meaningful line up, great! But don’t feel like you can only write about things like academic success, leadership roles, or entrepreneurship. Write about what’s meaningful to you and Vanderbilt will see your personality- which is really what they’re looking for- shine through. Reading Vanderbilt essays that worked is like planting a seed for your own success. Vanderbilt Essays That Worked: Analysis Vanderbilt doesn’t use the same prompts from year to year, but that doesn’t mean that looking at past successful essays can’t be useful. Consider this one from an accepted Vanderbilt student: â€Å"Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed,† Maria Montessori once said. School was about letting my curiosity lead me and teaching myself at my own pace. For example, at the start of 7th grade, I was handed the Algebra I book and told to complete it anytime in the next two years. I was intrigued to have a real textbook, but a bit overwhelmed, as the math looked like a foreign language. After reading a chapter, I’d take a stab at the problem set right away. It wasn’t about getting the problems right or wrong; it was about trying to understand the material. As frustrating as this process was, each time I conquered a new idea, my exasperation was transformed into new energy. I learned how to solve problems independently and to know when to ask others for help. ... When I did get to high school, I was surprised at how well prepared I was. My two strongest skills, time management and the ability to work well independently and in groups, mad e the transition easy for me. The Mesa Sands experience shaped me outside the classroom, too. One of my strongest qualities is trustworthiness. Because my school did not have a set structure or rules, I’ve in effect worked under an honor code from the time I was three years old. This essay was written for a different prompt, but the fact that it was successful shows you that it contains features that Vanderbilt likes to see. The writer of this essay discusses their education at a Montessori school, which doesn’t take the same approach to education as many other schools. Throughout, they refer to the school’s teachings and how they shaped their learning, not just but the things they were taught, but the way that they were taught. Not everybody had this same educational experience, but that doesn’t mean that you can’t use some of the same ideas in your own work. The writer draws a clear line between how they were brought up and the person they are now- you could do a similar thing by connecting the person you are with the activity you’ve chosen to write about. What have you learned about yourself because of what you do? The writer is also able to discuss academic strengths without referring to their GPA, which Vanderbilt is no doubt already familiar with. Instead, they discuss their strengths as traits, like adherence to an honor code, trustworthiness, and time management. More importantly, they write about where those traits come from- something you could easily do by referencing the importance of the activity you choose. What’s most important to take away from this essay is the way that the writer connects the experience of attending their unique school to the person they became. No matter what your education was or what activity you choose to write about, you can do a similar thing in your own essay! Don't be afraid of multiple drafts- they make the difference between a good essay and a great one. 5 Key Tips for Writing Your Vanderbilt Essay Vanderbilt is a prestigious school, but there are some essay standards that hold true no matter where you’re applying. Follow these steps to write an essay that’s sure to impress! #1: Start Writing Starting is the step that sounds the easiest, but it’s actually the hardest. No matter what you have to do to start writing, whether it’s freewriting, brainstorming, or just pumping out a first draft as fast as you can, you need to do it. At this point, don’t worry about quality or being impressive. Just get words down on paper so that you can edit them into shape later- if you spend too much time worrying about starting with a perfect beginning, you’ll never make it past that point. #2: Edit Step two is when you can start worrying about quality. Read your essay aloud and see if you can spot problems with word choice and flow. If you’re struggling to read it, change words and add punctuation as necessary. Also think about your overall point. Does it make sense? Are you able to trace your logic all the way through without a problem? If not, find ways to connect your thoughts from beginning to end. Be thorough in cutting extraneous words. 400 words isn’t a lot, and you’ll want to make sure you’re making your essay count by picking vibrant, active verbs and clear language. Don’t worry about being flowery or busting out the thesaurus, but do be sure that your wording doesn’t feel tired or dull. #3: Seek Feedback One of the best ways to find holes in your logic or other issues in your essay is to get others to give you feedback. Find people who want to see you succeed, but preferably not those who aren’t going to give you criticism if you need it. Teachers and other mentors are a good choice, if they’re available. Don’t feel like you have to use every piece of feedback you receive, but do consider all of it. Your essay should always be your own work, so try to rephrase suggestions in your own words or rewrite confusing passages how you would write them, not how others suggest. #4: Take a Break With deadlines looming and other essays to write, it may be tempting to just rush through after getting feedback and fix everything. But take some time away from your essay, focusing on other college application duties or on other things entirely. Anywhere from a couple days to weeks to months can be good for improving your essay, though do leave yourself time to revise.Taking a break lets your mind forget what you’ve already written, so that when you come back to revise you do so with fresh eyes. This way, you can see holes in your logic or places where your language isn’t as tight as it could be. You’ll never be able to completely shed your attachment to your essay, but spending some time away from it can give you a whole new outlook on your work! #5: Revise Now that you’ve had some time away and you have notes to incorporate, it’s time to revise. Revision can be something you do multiple times, combing through your essay for errors and places to strengthen it, but eventually you are going to have to turn it in. Don’t get caught up in perfection- focus on making your essay the best you can. Check it for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors to be sure it’s clean and easy to read, and send it off! What's Next? Starting your essay is often the hardest part. If you're unsure where to begin, check out this guide to starting a college essay perfectly, and don't be afraid to just dive right in! A good essay is just one part of a successful Vanderbilt application. If you want to really wow the admissions office, be sure your grades and test scores are up to snuff, too! Vanderbilt University may not be an Ivy League school, but that doesn't mean your application can't be Ivy League-ready. Use these tips for getting into Harvard to shape your college application, and you'll have no problem getting into any school you choose! Want to write the perfect college application essay? Get professional help from PrepScholar. Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We'll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay that you'll proudly submit to your top choice colleges. Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now:

Monday, February 17, 2020

Heteronormativity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Heteronormativity - Essay Example Despite the increased visibility of gay men and lesbian women, there remains no definition of family in the public consciousness that refers to same-sex couples with children. In fact, in the not too distant past, the notions of lesbian mothers/homosexual fathers or lesbian/homosexual families would have been nonexistent. This culture of heteronormativity (Gamson, 2000) dictates that a viable family consist of a heterosexual mother and a father raising children together. Heterosexuality and heterosexual forms of relating are the norm.1 All other forms of relational experience are thus viewed in contrast. For example, the descriptive term "couples" means heterosexual couples, then, there are gay and lesbian couples. Families are nuclear and headed by two heterosexual parents, then, there are gay and lesbian families. Similarly, "woman" means a heterosexual woman, then, there is the lesbian. Heteronormativity supports the dominant norm of heterosexuality by marginalizing any relational structure that defies it.2 A review of the family therapy literature bears this out; until recently the concept of the gay/lesbian family has been virtually unheard of in the family therapy field. This fact was confirmed by two research studies. Allen and Demo3 and Clark and Serovich found that the marriage and family therapy fields generally ignored gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues. For example, Clark and Serovich surveyed 17 journals published from 1975 to 1995. Of the 13,217 articles published, only 77, or 0.006% focused on gay/lesbian issues, used a gay/lesbian sample, or included sexual orientation as a variable.4 Goodrich (2003) cited the availability of only two early texts on working with lesbian couples in family therapy as an indication of the intense homophobia in the field from the 1960s to the 1990s.5 Proceeding from the above stated, heteronormativity has determined that unless the word gay is attached, marriage implies heterosexual marriage. Heterosexuality is the norm. Indeed, as Warner (1993) pointed out, "humanity and heterosexuality are synonymous."6 This notion of heterosexuality goes far beyond the institutions that marginalize and punish any relationship viewed as other. In this vein, heterosexuality is, of itself, a social and political organizing principle.7 Intrinsically linked to the structures of male dominance, heterosexuality can be viewed as a dictatorial patriarchal institution.8 Rich described this culture of compulsory heterosexuality as a powerful cluster of forces within which women have been convinced of the inevitability of both marriage and sexual orientation toward men. Thus, there have been very few attempts to explain how an individual develops a heterosexual orientation.9 Research into the development of heterosexuality is limited by the belief that it is natural and when it focuses upon homosexuality, persistently views it as deviant. Thus, implicit in discussions about sexual orientation is the notion that heterosexuality is both normal and mentally healthy, and that non-heterosexuals are abnormal and psychologically disabled.10 In direct relation to the homosexual/heterosexual categories, Rothblum (2000) pointed out that in a categorical definition of sexual orientation behavior, desire, and identity are assumed to be congruent.11 This is disputed by research.